Monday, March 7, 2016

The shortened form of -지 않다 with 하다 verbs

Most of you might know that -지 않다 is one of the common ways of constructing negative sentences.

If you have already learned this ending, then you will know that you simply add -지 않다 to the verb stem: 공부하다(I study) vs. 공부하지 않다 (I do not study) 좋다 (to be good) vs. 좋지 않다 (to not be good)

But, did you know that -지 않다 can be shortened when it is used with 하다 verbs?

There are two situations where this is done.

Here is the first:

1. If the syllable preceding 하다 ends with the consonantsㄹ, ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅇ, or any vowel , the ㅏ vowel in 하 is omitted.

You are left with “verb stem +ㅎ” (만만하다 --> 만만ㅎ) (만만하다 means to be easy to deal with, docile, to be full of)

2. Add -지 않다 --> “verb stem + ㅎ + 지 않다”

3. In Korean, ㅎ + ㅈ = ㅊ --> “verb stem + 치않다”


Here is the second situation:

1. If the syllable preceding 하다 DOES NOT end with the consonantsㄹ, ㄴ, ㅁ, or ㅇ, the 하 is omitted.

You are left with “verb stem” (답답하다 --> 답답); 답답하다 = to be impatient, suffocating, overbearing

2. Add -지 않다 --> “verb stem + 지 않다”
Let’s look at some examples to make it clearer:

FIRST SITUATION
1. 피곤하다 (to be tired) --> 피곤ㅎ
2. 피곤ㅎ + 지 않다
3. 피곤치않다

EX)
① 만만하다 -> 만만하지 않다 -> 만만ㅎ지 않다 -> 만만치 않다
② 성실하다 -> 성실하지 않다 -> 성실ㅎ지 않다 ->성실치 않다
③ 심심하다 -> 심심하지 않다 -> 심심ㅎ지 않다 -> 심심치 않다
④ 평범하다 -> 평범하지 않다 -> 평범ㅎ지 않다 -> 평범치 않다
⑤ 허술하다 -> 허술하지 않다 -> 허술ㅎ지 않다 -> 허술치 않다

SECOND SITUATION

1. 깨끗하다 (to be clean )-->깨끗
2. 깨끗지 않다

EX)

① 거북하다 -> 거북하지 않다 -> 거북지 않다
② 답답하다 -> 답답하지 않다 -> 답답지 않다 
③ 의젓하다 -> 의젓하지 않다 -> 의젓지 않다
④ 넉넉하다 -> 넉넉하지 않다 -> 넉넉지 않다

ONE MORE THING Both 치않다 and 지 않다 can be shortened even further: 치않다 -> 찮다 and지 않다 -> 잖다 So, 피곤치않다 becomes 피곤찮다. And, 깨끗지 않다 --> 깨끗잖다.

Now, you may be wondering one of two things: is -지 않다 (no shortened form) a valid way of making negative sentences AND when can I use the long and shortened forms?

Yes, -지 않다 is a valid form of constructing a negative sentence.
Therefore, 피곤하지 않다 = 피곤치않다 =피곤찮다
And, in general terms, -하지 않다, -지 않다 and -치않다 can all be used – and are used – in spoken Korean.
-찮다 and -잖다 are mostly used in written Korean literature. However, PART OF THEM is also often used in spoken Korean.